Approach to the prostate cancer patient with bone disease.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

PubMedID: 18178905

Greenspan SL. Approach to the prostate cancer patient with bone disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(1):2-7.
Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly used in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer and is associated with significant bone loss and fractures. The greatest bone loss occurs during initiation of ADT. Men should have assessment of skeletal integrity with bone mineral density examination by dual x-ray absorptiometry of the hip and spine. Men with fragility fractures or osteoporosis by bone density should be considered for bisphosphonate therapy. Men with low bone mass may need antiresorptive therapy, depending on other risk factors. Men with a normal bone mineral density should be followed up closely with bone densitometry while on ADT. All men should receive preventive measures with calcium (1200 mg daily in divided doses), vitamin D (800-1000 IU/d), and weight-bearing exercise. Men should be evaluated for additional secondary causes of bone loss including vitamin D insufficiency. Guidelines are needed for androgen-induced bone loss screening and treatment.