Approach to the child with coma.

Indian journal of pediatrics

PubMedID: 20830533

Sharma S, Kochar GS, Sankhyan N, Gulati S. Approach to the child with coma. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77(11):1279-87.
Coma and other states of impaired consciousness represent a medical emergency. The potential causes are numerous, and the critical window for diagnosis and effective intervention is often short. The common causes of non-traumatic coma include central nervous system infections, metabolic encephalopathy (hepatic, uremic, diabetic ketoacidosis etc.), intracranial bleed, stroke and status epilepticus. The basic principles of management include 1) Rapid assessment and stabilization, 2) Focussed clinical evaluation to assess depth of coma, localization of lesion in the central nervous system and possible clues to etiology, and 3) Treatment including general and specific measures. Commonly associated problems such as raised intracranial pressure and seizures must be recognized and managed to prevent secondary neurologic injury.