[Neonatal diabetes mellitus: a clinical analysis of 13 cases].

Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics

PubMedID: 21176489

Li XZ, Zhang XH, Liu L, Cheng J, Zhang W. [Neonatal diabetes mellitus: a clinical analysis of 13 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;48(10):775-8.
OBJECTIVE
To study the clinical features of neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM).

METHOD
Thirteen cases with NDM were seen in our department between Jul. 2004 and Sept. 2009. Their clinical features were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS
The average birth weight of the 13 cases was 2.30 kg. The median age at diagnosis was 2 months. The mean blood glucose at diagnosis was 22.2 mmol/L. Symptoms in 9 of 13 cases were exacerbated by infection and only 5 had typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and body weight loss. The common clinical findings included athrepsia, diuresis, and moderate dehydration. Ketoacidosis attacked 3 cases and 3 children had hypertriglyceridemia, meanwhile, 2 children had complications of blood clotting dysfunction and congenital cardiopathy, respectively. Autoantibody to insulin (IAA) was tested in 11 cases, all but one case was negative. Glycosylated hemoglobin was increased in 6 cases. Insulin treatment was started in all the 13 cases. The initial dose was 0.56-1.00 U/(kg × d), and the maximal dose was 1.35 U/(kg × d) depending on the variety of blood glucose. Blood glucose decreased significantly within 24 hours. Unfortunately, 1 case developed progressive blood glucose decline and recurrent hypoglycemia. Symptoms of the 3 cases who developed DKA were relieved 48 hours later, and their blood glucose was well under control. Among the 8 cases followed up, 4 had TNDM and 2 had PNDM. Unfortunately, 1 case died at the age of 3 months because insulin injection was stopped by the parents.

CONCLUSION
Early diagnosis and prompt management may lead to favorable prognosis. Blood glucose monitoring is a valuable method to avoid misdiagnosis and NDM should be differentiated from stress hyperglycemia, iatrogenic, or other causes of hyperglycemia.