Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

PubMedID: 21254966

Chakrabarti A, Slavin MA. Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Med Mycol. 2011;49(4):337-44.
Endemic mycoses are important fungal infections in their respective habitats. In the Asia-Pacific region, an accurate epidemiological picture of endemic mycoses is elusive; few epidemiological surveys have been performed, and limited laboratory facilities and experience with fungal infections have further hampered recognition of infection. However, pockets of endemicity do indeed exist, and endemic fungal infections can have a significant impact on public health. This article reviews the most common endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region: histoplasmosis, penicilliosis, and sporotrichosis. Blastomycosis, which has been infrequently reported within the region, is also briefly discussed. Certain areas of the Asia-Pacific region are endemic for histoplasmosis; however, the ecologic niche for this infection remains unclear. Penicilliosis is restricted to Southeast and Eastern Asia, whereas sporotrichosis is encountered in tropical areas of the Asia-Pacific region linked to environmental reservoirs distinct from those seen in the Western world. Before the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were only occasionally reported; however, the incidence of both mycoses has increased with the rise in the incidence of AIDS. Comprehensive studies are needed to fully assess the areas of endemicity and the impact of endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region.