Difficulties in the daily life of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: scale development and descriptive study.

Journal of clinical nursing

PubMedID: 21320203

Tanimura C, Morimoto M, Hiramatsu K, Hagino H. Difficulties in the daily life of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: scale development and descriptive study. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(5-6):743-53.
AIM
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to assess difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and to investigate factors influencing difficulties in daily life.

BACKGROUND
Osteoarthritis of the knee is commonly associated with clinical symptoms and disabilities. No scale has been available to assess the comprehensive and subjective difficulties felt in daily life by patients affected in social and cultural lifestyle. Therefore, little is known about difficulties in osteoarthritis of the knee patients and supportive care necessary for them.

DESIGN
A scale development and descriptive study.

METHODS
The participants consisted of 362 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. The scale development involved several phases including item development, reliability testing, criterion-related validity testing and construct validity testing.

RESULTS
The exploratory factor analysis included three domains: 'suffering in social life', 'hardship in activities in daily life' and 'apprehension about the future life'. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed validity of the construct, with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Difficulties in daily life scores were significantly influenced by pain, loss of balance, muscle weakness, stiffness and swelling.

CONCLUSION
We developed a reliable and valid scale for the measurement of difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. It is important for healthcare professionals to understand these difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and to educate patients with practical information and self-management strategies.

RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
This new scale could provide useful information to guide clinical practice in assessing and managing difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.