Vertebrate slow skeletal muscle actin - conservation, distribution and conformational flexibility.

Biochimica et biophysica acta

PubMedID: 21722757

Mercer RC, Mudalige WA, Ige TO, Heeley DH. Vertebrate slow skeletal muscle actin - conservation, distribution and conformational flexibility. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814(10):1253-60.
The existence of a unique sarcomeric actin is demonstrated in teleosts that possess substantial amounts of slow skeletal muscle in the trunk. The slow skeletal isotype is conserved. There is one amino acid substitution between Atlantic herring slow skeletal actin and the equivalent in salmonids. Conversely, the intra-species variation is considerable; 13 substitutions between different herring skeletal isotypes (slow versus fast). The isomorphisms (non-conservative underlined: residues, 2, 3, 103, 155, 160, 165, 278, 281, 310, 329, 358, 360 and 363) are restricted to sub-domains 1 and 3 and include the substitution Asp-360 in 'slow' to Gln in 'fast' which results in an electrophoretic shift at alkaline pH. The musculature of the trunk facilitates the preparation of isoactins for biochemical study. Herring slow skeletal G-actin (Ca.ATP) is more susceptible to thermal, and urea, -induced denaturation and subtilisin cleavage than that in fast skeletal, but more stable than the counterpart in salmonids (one substitution, Gln354Ala) highlighting the critical nature of actin's carboxyl-terminal insert. Fluorescent spectra of G-actin isoforms containing the isomorphism Ser155Ala in complexation with 2'-deoxy 3' O-(N'-Methylanthraniloyl) ATP infer similar polarity of the nucleotide binding cleft. An electrophoretic survey detected two skeletal actins in some (smelt and mackerel) but not all teleosts. One skeletal muscle actin was detected in frog and bird.