Displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop of trace amounts of palladium in water and road dust samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

Journal of AOAC International

PubMedID: 24000764

Ghanbarian M, Afzali D, Mostafavi A, Fathirad F. Displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop of trace amounts of palladium in water and road dust samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination. J AOAC Int. 2013;96(4):880-6.
A new displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop was developed for separation and preconcentration of Pd(ll) in road dust and aqueous samples. This method involves two steps of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification. In Step 1, Cu ions react with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which is extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In Step 2, the extracted complex is first dispersed using ethanol in a sample solution containing Pd ions, then a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure is performed creating an organic drop. In this step, Pd(ll) replaces Cu(ll) from the pre-extracted Cu-DDTC complex and goes into the extraction solvent phase. Finally, the Pd(ll)-containing drop is introduced into a graphite furnace using a microsyringe, and Pd(ll) is determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Several factors that influence the extraction efficiency of Pd and its subsequent determination, such as extraction and dispersive solvent type and volume, pH of sample solution, centrifugation time, and concentration of DDTC, are optimized.