Mathematical modelling of the transport of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ranitidine hydrochloride and furosemide loaded chitosan nanoparticles across a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

International journal of pharmaceutics

PubMedID: 22101294

Sadighi A, Ostad SN, Rezayat SM, Foroutan M, Faramarzi MA, Dorkoosh FA. Mathematical modelling of the transport of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ranitidine hydrochloride and furosemide loaded chitosan nanoparticles across a Caco-2 cell monolayer. Int J Pharm. 2012;422(1-2):479-88.
Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used to enhance the permeability of furosemide and ranitidine hydrochloride (ranitidine HCl) which were selected as candidates for two different biopharmaceutical drug classes having low permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Drugs loaded CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation of CS and pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) which added to the drugs inclusion complexes with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ßCD). The stability constants for furosemide/HP-ßCD and ranitidine HCl/HP-ßCD were calculated as 335 M(-1) and 410 M(-1), whereas the association efficiencies (AE%) of the drugs/HP-ßCD inclusion complexes with CS-NPs were determined to be 23.0 and 19.5%, respectively. Zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise drugs/HP-ßCD-NPs size and morphology. Transport of both nano and non-nano formulations of drugs/HP-ßCD complexes across a Caco-2 cell monolayer was assessed and fitted to mathematical models. Furosemide/HP-ßCD-NPs demonstrated transport kinetics best suited for the Higuchi model, whereas other drug formulations demonstrated power law transportation behaviour. Permeability experiments revealed that furosemide/HP-ßCD and ranitidine HCl/HP-ßCD nano formulations greatly induce the opening of tight junctions and enhance drug transition through Caco-2 monolayers.