Interactions of intermediate semiquinone with surrounding protein residues at the Q(H) site of wild-type and D75H mutant cytochrome bo3 from Escherichia coli.

Biochemistry

PubMedID: 22497216

Lin MT, Baldansuren A, Hart R, Samoilova RI, Narasimhulu KV, Yap LL, Choi SK, O'Malley PJ, Gennis RB, Dikanov SA. Interactions of intermediate semiquinone with surrounding protein residues at the Q(H) site of wild-type and D75H mutant cytochrome bo3 from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2012;51(18):3827-38.
Selective (15)N isotope labeling of the cytochrome bo(3) ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli with auxotrophs was used to characterize the hyperfine couplings with the side-chain nitrogens from residues R71, H98, and Q101 and peptide nitrogens from residues R71 and H98 around the semiquinone (SQ) at the high-affinity Q(H) site. The two-dimensional ESEEM (HYSCORE) data have directly identified N(e) of R71 as an H-bond donor carrying the largest amount of unpaired spin density. In addition, weaker hyperfine couplings with the side-chain nitrogens from all residues around the SQ were determined. These hyperfine couplings reflect a distribution of the unpaired spin density over the protein in the SQ state of the Q(H) site and the strength of interaction with different residues. The approach was extended to the virtually inactive D75H mutant, where the intermediate SQ is also stabilized. We found that N(e) of a histidine residue, presumably H75, carries most of the unpaired spin density instead of N(e) of R71, as in wild-type bo(3). However, the detailed characterization of the weakly coupled (15)N atoms from selective labeling of R71 and Q101 in D75H was precluded by overlap of the (15)N lines with the much stronger ~1.6 MHz line from the quadrupole triplet of the strongly coupled (14)N(e) atom of H75. Therefore, a reverse labeling approach, in which the enzyme was uniformly labeled except for selected amino acid types, was applied to probe the contribution of R71 and Q101 to the (15)N signals. Such labeling has shown only weak coupling with all nitrogens of R71 and Q101. We utilize density functional theory-based calculations to model the available information about (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C hyperfine couplings for the Q(H) site and to describe the protein-substrate interactions in both enzymes. In particular, we identify the factors responsible for the asymmetric distribution of the unpaired spin density and ponder the significance of this asymmetry to the quinone's electron transfer function.