Glycomics of pediatric and adulthood diseases of the central nervous system.

Journal of proteomics

PubMedID: 22813883

Barone R, Sturiale L, Palmigiano A, Zappia M, Garozzo D. Glycomics of pediatric and adulthood diseases of the central nervous system. J Proteomics. 2012;75(17):5123-39.
Glycosylation consists in the covalent linkage of a carbohydrate structure to membrane bound and secreted glycoconjugates. It is a common post-translational modification that serves multiple functions in cell differentiation, signaling and intercellular communication. Unlike DNA/RNA/protein, the addition of complex carbohydrates is not-template driven and it is conceivable that both genetics and environmental factors might interact to influence glycosylation machinery in several pathological processes. Over the last few decades, the recognition of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) as an increasing number of genetic diseases of glycosylation with almost constant nervous system involvement, dramatically illustrated the consequences of abnormal glycosylation as improper CNS development and function. In addition, CDG recognition contributed to postulate that aberrant glycosylation processes might play a role in multifactorial, complex CNS diseases. On this context, CNS glycomics explores the effects of possible aberrant glycosylation to identify potential glyco-biomarkers useful for the diagnosis and ultimately for potential intervention strategies in neurological diseases. Up to date, CNS glycomics is an emerging, still uncharted area because of the specificity of CNS glycosylation, the complexity of the neurological disorders and for the inaccessibility and invasiveness of disease relevant samples. Here we review current knowledge on clinical glycomics of nervous system diseases, starting with CDG to include those pediatric and adulthood neuropsychiatric diseases where some evidences suggest that multifactor determinants converge to dysregulate glycosylation. Conventional and mass spectrometry-based high throughput technology for glyco-biomarker detection in CNS diseases is reported.