Locating Protonated Amines in Clathrates.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

PubMedID: 24007314

Chang TM, Cooper RJ, Williams ER. Locating Protonated Amines in Clathrates. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;.
The structures and inherent stabilities of hydrated, protonated ammonia, select protonated primary, secondary and tertiary amines as well as tetramethylammonium with 19 - 21 water molecules were investigated using infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) at 133 K. Magic number clusters (MNCs) with 20 water molecules were observed for all ions except tetramethylammonium, and the BIRD results indicate that these clusters have stable structures, which are relatively unaffected by addition of one water molecule but are disrupted in clusters with one less water molecule. IRPD spectra in the water free O-H stretch region are consistent with clathrate structures for the MNCs with 20 water molecules, whereas non-clathrate structures are indicated for tetramethylammonium as well as ions at the other cluster sizes. The locations of protonated ammonia and the protonated primary amines either in the interior or at the surface of a clathrate were determined by comparing IRPD spectra of these ions to those of reference ions; Rb+ and protonated tert-butylammonia with 20 water molecules were used as references for an ion in the interior and at the surface of a clathrate, respectively. These results indicate that protonated ammonia is in the interior of the clathrate whereas protonated methyl- and n-heptylamine are at the surface. Calculations suggest that the number of hydrogen bonds in these clusters do not directly correlate with structural stability, indicating that both the number and orientation of the hydrogen bonds are important. These experimental results should serve as benchmarks for computational studies aimed at elucidating ion effects on the hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules and the surface activity of ions.