Recurrence of another hepatitis B virus escape mutant comes back in a patient infected with HIV and low CD4+ count.

Journal of medical virology

PubMedID: 24008988

Milazzo L, Ebranati E, Cattaneo D, Gabanelli E, Lai A, Zehender G, Gervasoni C. Recurrence of another hepatitis B virus escape mutant comes back in a patient infected with HIV and low CD4+ count. J Med Virol. 2013;.
The case of an HIV-positive patient who cleared formerly acute HBV infection and experienced HBV exacerbation before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) followed by a severe elevation of liver enzymes one month after the introduction of ART is reported. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a subgenotype A2 carrying at least seven different mutations within the S protein and high lopinavir plasma concentrations. Irrespectively of the many possible mechanisms of HBV reactivation in patients infected with HIV (escape mutants selection, host immune deficiency progression, antiretroviral-related immune reconstitution, glucocorticosteroids, chemotherapy), the message is that HIV patients should be monitored strictly not only by serological and virological assays to recognize early HBV reactivation, but also for drug over-exposure. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.