A randomized controlled trial of intranasal-midazolam versus intravenous-diazepam for acute childhood seizures.

Journal of neurology

PubMedID: 22983456

Thakker A, Shanbag P. A randomized controlled trial of intranasal-midazolam versus intravenous-diazepam for acute childhood seizures. J Neurol. 2013;260(2):470-4.
The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of acute childhood seizures. A randomized controlled study was conducted in a pediatric emergency department in a tertiary general hospital. Fifty children aged from 1 month to 12 years presenting with acute seizures of at least 10 min duration were enrolled during a 12 month period. Intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and intravenous diazepam (0.3 mg/kg) were administered. The main outcome measures were interval between arrival at hospital and starting treatment and interval between arrival at hospital and cessation of seizures. Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. Overall 18 of 27 seizures were controlled with midazolam and 15 of 23 with diazepam. The mean interval between arrival at hospital and starting treatment was significantly shorter in the midazolam group [3.37 min (SD 2.46)] as compared to the diazepam group [14.13 min (SD 3.39)]. The mean interval between cessation of seizures and arrival at hospital was significantly shorter in the midazolam group [6.67 min (SD 3.12)] as compared to the diazepam group [17.18 min (SD 5.09)]. The mean interval between control of seizures and administration of the drug was shorter in the diazepam group [2.67 min (SD 2.31)] as compared to the midazolam group [3.01 min (SD 2.79)]. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam. Midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam. The overall interval between arrival at hospital and cessation of seizures was shorter with intranasal midazolam than with intravenous diazepam. The intranasal route can be possibly used not only in medical centres, but with appropriate instruction by the parents of children with acute seizures at home.