HIV impairment of immune responses in dendritic cells.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology

PubMedID: 22975877

Ahmed Z, Czubala M, Blanchet F, Piguet V. HIV impairment of immune responses in dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;762201-38.
Dendritic cells and their subsets are diverse populations of immune cells in the skin and mucous membranes that possess the ability to sense the presence of microbes and orchestrate an efficient and adapted immune response. Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells are composed of a number of subsets behaving with preferential and specific features depending on their location and surrounding environment. Langerhans cells (LC) or dermal DC (dDC) are readily present in mucosal areas. Other DC subsets such as plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid DC (myDC), or monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) are thought to be recruited or differentiated in sites of pathogenic challenge. Upon HIV infection, DC and their subsets are likely among the very first immune cells to encounter incoming pathogens and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, as evidenced during HIV infection, some pathogens have evolved subtle strategies to hijack key cellular machineries essential to generate efficient antiviral responses and subvert immune responses for spread and survival.In this chapter, we review recent research aimed at investigating the involvement of DC subtypes in HIV transmission at mucosal sites, concentrating on HIV impact on cellular signalling and trafficking pathways in DC leading to DC-mediated immune response alterations and viral immune evasion. We also address some aspects of DC functions during the chronic immune pathogenesis and conclude with an overview of the current and novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies aimed at improving DC-mediated immune responses, thus to potentially tackle the early events of mucosal HIV infection and spread.