Nicotine affects bone resorption and suppresses the expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9 and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase d2 and actin organization in osteoclasts.

PloS one

PubMedID: 23555029

Tanaka H, Tanabe N, Kawato T, Nakai K, Kariya T, Matsumoto S, Zhao N, Motohashi M, Maeno M. Nicotine affects bone resorption and suppresses the expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9 and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase d2 and actin organization in osteoclasts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59402.
Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and lipopolysaccharide increases osteoclast differentiation. However, the direct effect of nicotine on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the direct effects of nicotine on the expression of nicotine receptors and bone resorption-related enzymes, mineral resorption, actin organization, and bone resorption using RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow cells as osteoclast precursors. Cells were cultured with 10(-5), 10(-4), or 10(-3) M nicotine and/or 50 ┬ÁM a-bungarotoxin (btx), an 7 nicotine receptor antagonist, in differentiation medium containing the soluble RANKL for up 7 days. 1-5, 7, 9, and 10 nicotine receptors were expressed on RAW264.7 cells. The expression of 7 nicotine receptor was increased by the addition of nicotine. Nicotine suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinuclear osteoclasts with large nuclei(=10 nuclei), and decreased the planar area of each cell. Nicotine decreased expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, and V-ATPase d2. Btx inhibited nicotine effects. Nicotine increased CA II expression although decreased the expression of V-ATPase d2 and the distribution of F-actin. Nicotine suppressed the planar area of resorption pit by osteoclasts, but did not affect mineral resorption. These results suggest that nicotine increased the number of osteoclasts with small nuclei, but suppressed the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei. Moreover, nicotine reduced the planar area of resorption pit by suppressing the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei, V-ATPase d2, cathepsin K and MMP-9 expression and actin organization.