Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

PloS one

PubMedID: 23555024

Ostrowski SR, Berg RM, Windeløv NA, Meyer MA, Plovsing RR, Møller K, Johansson PI. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59368.
BACKGROUND
Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG).

METHODS
Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour), with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)) and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest) were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.

RESULTS
Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05). Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05), whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05). Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h), whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT), p<0.001) and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049). After endotoxemia (6 h), whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05). In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS
Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are critically involved in the vasculo-fibrinolytic response to acute inflammation is important given that disturbances in the vascular system contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients.