(Pro)renin receptor mediates both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

PloS one

PubMedID: 23516464

Peng H, Li W, Seth DM, Nair AR, Francis J, Feng Y. (Pro)renin receptor mediates both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent oxidative stress in neuronal cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e58339.
The binding of renin or prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) promotes angiotensin (Ang) II formation and mediates Ang II-independent signaling pathways. In the central nervous system (CNS), Ang II regulates blood pressure via inducing oxidative stress; however, the role of PRR-mediated Ang II-independent signaling pathways in oxidative stress in the CNS remains undefined. To address this question, Neuro-2A cells were infected with control virus or an adeno-associated virus encoding the human PRR. Human PRR over-expression alone increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms 2 and 4 mRNA expression levels and these effects were not blocked by losartan. Moreover, the increase in NOX 2 and NOX 4 mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and ROS levels induced by PRR over-expression was prevented by mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) inhibition, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (IP3/Akt) inhibition, indicating that PRR regulates NOX activity and ROS formation in neuro-2A cells through Ang II-independent ERK1/2 and IP3/Akt activation. Interestingly, at a concentration of 2 nM or higher, prorenin promoted Ang II formation, and thus further increased the ROS levels in cultured Neuro-2A cells via PRR. In conclusion, human PRR over-expression induced ROS production through both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We showed that PRR-mediated angiotensin II-independent ROS formation is associated with activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3/Akt signaling pathways and up-regulation of mRNA level of NOX 2 and NOX4 isoforms in neuronal cells.