Energetic silver salts with 5-aminotetrazole ligands.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

PubMedID: 19105192

Karaghiosoff K, Klapötke TM, Miró Sabaté C. Energetic silver salts with 5-aminotetrazole ligands. Chemistry. 2009;15(5):1164-76.
Methylation of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (1) gives 1-methyl-5-amino-1H-tetrazole (2) and 2-methyl-5-amino-1H-tetrazole (3). A new family of energetic silver complexes based on ligands 1, 2 and 3 with perchlorate and nitrate anions (10-15) were synthesized and characterized by using IR, Raman, and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (14)N, and (35)Cl NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of the compounds were determined where possible and reveal interesting structural details that are discussed herein. Additionally, differential scanning calorimetry was used to assess the thermal stability of the new salts, which showed excellent thermal stabilities at temperatures up to and above 225 degrees C. Standard tests were also used to assess the sensitivity of the materials towards impact and friction. All the silver complexes showed increased sensitivity values in comparison with analogous protonated 5-amino-1H-tetrazolium perchlorate and nitrate salts. Some of these materials have sensitivity values that are comparable to commonly used primary explosives and all of them either deflagrate (12-14) or detonate loudly (10 and 11) on contact with an open flame. Lastly, nitrate salt 11 is easily initiated by thermal shock. It shows reasonably low sensitivity in comparison with other silver salts (e.g., silver azide or silver fulminate), which makes handling it much less hazardous. Compound 11 also has good thermal stability, decomposing at approximately 300 degrees C, and shows interesting properties as a more environmentally benign alternative to lead(II) diazide in initiation devices for civil and military applications.