Metals contained and leached from rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas.

The Science of the total environment

PubMedID: 19155051

Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Costantini S, Izzo P. Metals contained and leached from rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(7):2183-90.
The aim of this study was to quantify metals contained in and leached from different types of rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas. To investigate the total content of metals, ca 0.5 g of material was added with HNO(3), HF and HClO(4) and microwave digested with power increasing from 250 W to 600 W. Leachates were prepared by extraction of about 5.0 g of material at room temperature for 24 h in an acidic environment (pH 5). Leaching with deionized water was also performed for comparison. Aluminium, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, W and Zn were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results indicated that the developed method was accurate and precise for the multi-element characterization of rubber granulates and leachates. The total amount and the amount leached during the acidic test varied from metal to metal and from granulate to granulate. The highest median values were found for Zn (10,229 mg/kg), Al (755 mg/kg), Mg (456 mg/kg), Fe (305 mg/kg), followed by Pb, Ba, Co, Cu and Sr. The other elements were present at few units of mg/kg. The highest leaching was observed for Zn (2300 microg/l) and Mg (2500 microg/l), followed by Fe, Sr, Al, Mn and Ba. Little As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb and V leached, and Be, Hg, Se, Sn, Tl and W were below quantification limits. Data obtained were compared with the maximum tolerable amounts reported for similar materials, and only the concentration of Zn (total and leached) exceeded the expected values.