Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS: report of five cases and review of the literature.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

PubMedID: 18955006

Wu UI, Chen MY, Hu RH, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Lo YC, Hung CC, Chang SC. Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS: report of five cases and review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13(2):285-90.
BACKGROUND
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) often causes disseminated infection in patients at an advanced stage of HIV infection; however, peritonitis associated with disseminated MAC infection is rare.

METHODS
In this report, we describe five cases of MAC peritonitis in AIDS patients at our hospital, and analyze these cases alongside 11 previously published cases found in the literature.

RESULTS
Most of the AIDS patients with MAC peritonitis had CD4 counts of <50 cells/microl and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels. Other than ascites, MAC was also isolated from other sterile and non-sterile sites. Of note, six patients (37.5%) presented with chylous ascites.

CONCLUSIONS
Despite therapy, MAC peritonitis is associated with a grave outcome.