Mitochondria and reactive oxygen species.

Free radical biology & medicine

PubMedID: 19427899

Kowaltowski AJ, de Souza-Pinto NC, Castilho RF, Vercesi AE. Mitochondria and reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47(4):333-43.
Mitochondria are a quantitatively relevant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the majority of cell types. Here we review the sources and metabolism of ROS in this organelle, including the conditions that regulate the production of these species, such as mild uncoupling, oxygen tension, respiratory inhibition, Ca2+ and K+ transport, and mitochondrial content and morphology. We discuss substrate-, tissue-, and organism-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidant generation. Several aspects of the physiological and pathological roles of mitochondrial ROS production are also addressed.