Transcription factor AP-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: alterations in activity and expression during human Papillomavirus infection.

BMC cancer

PubMedID: 19758438

Hussain S, Bharti AC, Salam I, Bhat MA, Mir MM, Hedau S, Siddiqi MA, Basir SF, Das BC. Transcription factor AP-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: alterations in activity and expression during human Papillomavirus infection. BMC Cancer. 2009;9329.
BACKGROUND
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of India. A substantial proportion of esophageal carcinoma is associated with infection of high-risk HPV type 16 and HPV18, the oncogenic expression of which is controlled by host cell transcription factor Activator Protein-1 (AP-1). We, therefore, have investigated the role of DNA binding and expression pattern of AP-1 in esophageal cancer with or without HPV infection.

METHODS
Seventy five histopathologically-confirmed esophageal cancer and an equal number of corresponding adjacent normal tissue biopsies from Kashmir were analyzed for HPV infection, DNA binding activity and expression of AP-1 family of proteins by PCR, gel shift assay and immunoblotting respectively.

RESULTS
A high DNA binding activity and elevated expression of AP-1 proteins were observed in esophageal cancer, which differed between HPV positive (19%) and HPV negative (81%) carcinomas. While JunB, c-Fos and Fra-1 were the major contributors to AP-1 binding activity in HPV negative cases, Fra-1 was completely absent in HPV16 positive cancers. Comparison of AP-1 family proteins demonstrated high expression of JunD and c-Fos in HPV positive tumors, but interestingly, Fra-1 expression was extremely low or nil in these tumor tissues.

CONCLUSION
Differential AP-1 binding activity and expression of its specific proteins between HPV--positive and HPV--negative cases indicate that AP-1 may play an important role during HPV-induced esophageal carcinogenesis.