Established therapies and novel targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Expert review of clinical pharmacology

PubMedID: 22112257

Dézsi L, Vécsei L. Established therapies and novel targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2009;2(6):631-44.
Parkinson's disease affects more than 1% of individuals older than 60 years of age. The gold standard of its symptomatic treatment is levodopa therapy, which in time leads to motor fluctuations and dyskinesia due to noncontinuous receptor stimulation. Dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are recommended as initial therapy, but they are less effective in the advanced stages of the disease. Treatment should be individualized for the patient, dependent on the stage, with attention to nonmotor symptoms. No effective neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson's disease is yet available, and there is currently substantial interest in the development of new nondopaminergic agents. Analogs of kynurenic acid and inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of quinolinic acid may exert a neuroprotective effect.