Population pharmacokinetic investigation of actinomycin-D in children and young adults.

Journal of clinical pharmacology

PubMedID: 18094218

Mondick JT, Gibiansky L, Gastonguay MR, Skolnik JM, Cole M, Veal GJ, Boddy AV, Adamson PC, Barrett JS. Population pharmacokinetic investigation of actinomycin-D in children and young adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48(1):35-42.
Actinomycin-D is an antineoplastic agent that inhibits RNA synthesis by binding to guanine residues and inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Although actinomycin-D has been used to treat rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms tumor for more than 40 years, the dose/exposure relationship is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to develop an initial population pharmacokinetic model to describe actinomycin-D disposition in children and young adults from which a prospective study could be designed. A total of 165 actinomycin-D plasma concentration measurements from 33 patients, aged 1.6 to 20.3 years, were used for the analysis. The data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM software system. Age, weight, and gender were examined as covariates for the ability to explain interindividual variability in actinomycin-D pharmacokinetics. The final model was qualified via predictive check and nonparametric bootstrap procedures. A 3-compartment model with first-order elimination was chosen as the structural model. Allometric expressions incorporating weight were used to describe the effects of body size on actinomycin-D pharmacokinetics. Age and gender had no discernible effects on actinomycin-D pharmacokinetics in the population studied. The predictive check showed that the developed model was able to simulate data in close agreement with the actual study observations. The availability of an initial population pharmacokinetic model to describe actinomycin-D pharmacokinetics will facilitate the development of a large-scale clinical trial to study the actinomycin-D dose/exposure relationship in pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms tumor. The covariate analysis described by the current data set suggests that indices of body size captured via allometric expressions improve the partition of variation in actinomycin-D pharmacokinetics from this pilot data set. Relationships between pharmacokinetics and toxicity will be examined in future prospective studies in which children less than 1 year old will be enrolled.