A histopathological study of Hudson River crayfish, Orconectes virilis, exposed to platinum group metals.

Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering

PubMedID: 24171412

Wren M, Gagnon ZE. A histopathological study of Hudson River crayfish, Orconectes virilis, exposed to platinum group metals. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2013;49(2):135-45.
Platinum group metals (PGMs), such as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh), are of increasing concern due to rising anthropogenic input to aquatic systems. In this study, PGMs' effects on bioaccumulation and histopathological changes were investigated using Orconectes virilis, a native Hudson River crayfish, as a model. Organisms were exposed to varying concentrations of water-soluble PGM salts for 10 days. The following experimental treatments were established: 0.0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 ppm Pt(IV), 1.0 ppm Rh(III), 1.0 ppm Pd(II), and a PGM mix (1.0 ppm Pt(IV), Rh(III), Pd(II) each) dissolved in raw Hudson River water. Metal content in the tissue samples were analyzed by a Spectro Genesis ICP-OES. The relationship between Pt, Pd, and Rh concentrations in different treatments and observed behavioral changes during the experiment was analyzed through One-Way ANOVA Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (P = 0.05). Paraffin sections, 6-µm-thick, were prepared in standard eosin-Y and hematoxylin-2 stain and examined for histological abnormalities within hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, brain, and ganglia tissue. Statistically significant differences in PGM bioaccumulation were observed in all organs, with highest concentrations found in the hepatopancreas, 81.68 mg g(-1) dw in 1.0 ppm Pd treatment, 20.03 mg g(-1) dw Rh in 1.0 ppm Rh treatment, and 81.58 mg g(-1) dw Pt in the 5.0 ppm Pt treatment. Pt bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas and exoskeleton decreased at the highest Pt exposure treatment, suggesting severe structural damage to tissue. Hyper-segmentation of vacuoles and swelling of the vascular channels were observed in the hepatocyte structure of the hepatopancreas. Exoskeleton exhibited visible bands in the exocuticle indicating demineralization. Brain and ganglia demonstrated extensive vacuolization. Behavioral analysis showed an increase of maximum response intensity over the experimental period within each treatment. Bioaccumulation and cellular abnormalities observed in exposed aquatic organisms raise concern of PGM bio-magnification within the food chain and its effect on the environment and human health.