Lung regional metabolic activity and gas volume changes induced by tidal ventilation in patients with acute lung injury.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

PubMedID: 21257791

Bellani G, Guerra L, Musch G, Zanella A, Patroniti N, Mauri T, Messa C, Pesenti A. Lung regional metabolic activity and gas volume changes induced by tidal ventilation in patients with acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(9):1193-9.
RATIONALE
During acute lung injury (ALI), mechanical ventilation can aggravate inflammation by promoting alveolar distension and cyclic recruitment-derecruitment. As an estimate of the intensity of inflammation, metabolic activity can be measured by positron emission tomography imaging of [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose.

OBJECTIVES
To assess the relationship between gas volume changes induced by tidal ventilation and pulmonary metabolic activity in patients with ALI.

METHODS
In 13 mechanically ventilated patients with ALI and relatively high positive end-expiratory pressure, we performed a positron emission tomography scan of the chest and three computed tomography scans: at mean airway pressure, end-expiration, and end-inspiration. Metabolic activity was measured from the [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake rate. The computed tomography scans were used to classify lung regions as derecruited throughout the respiratory cycle, undergoing recruitment-derecruitment, and normally aerated.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
Metabolic activity of normally aerated lung was positively correlated both with plateau pressure, showing a pronounced increase above 26 to 27 cm H(2)O, and with regional Vt normalized by end-expiratory lung gas volume. This relationship did not appear to be caused by a higher underlying parenchymal metabolic activity in patients with higher plateau pressure. Regions undergoing cyclic recruitment-derecruitment did not have higher metabolic activity than those collapsed throughout the respiratory cycle.

CONCLUSIONS
In patients with ALI managed with relatively high end-expiratory pressure, metabolic activity of aerated regions was associated with both plateau pressure and regional Vt normalized by end-expiratory lung gas volume, whereas no association was found between cyclic recruitment-derecruitment and increased metabolic activity.