Summertime and early autumn activity of some enzymes in the carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism of the crucian carp.

Fish physiology and biochemistry

PubMedID: 24213818

Lind Y. Summertime and early autumn activity of some enzymes in the carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism of the crucian carp. Fish Physiol Biochem. 1992;9(5-6):409-15.
In June, July, and September the activities of five enzymes involved in the carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, namely phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome oxidase (cyt ox) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), were measured in the heart, liver, red muscle, white muscle, and gill lamellae of crucian carp (Carassius carassius). LDH activity was measured in both reducing (LDHr) and oxidizing (LDHo) directions.The PFK activity in red and white muscle increased significantly between July and September indicating a preparation to winter anoxia by an increased glycylytic capacity in these organs. The HAD activity of the liver had increased significantly (by more than 50%) by September, also a preparation to winter anoxia as HAD is used in the reversed ß-oxidation (chain elongation of fatty acids). The LDHr and cyt ox activities in the heart and white muscle were highest in July. This shows that both the anaerobic and aerobic capacities are elevated in mid-summer when water temperature is high and oxygen concentration of the water could fluctuate greatly. The LDHo and CS activities in gill lamellae were lowest in July. The results show that the metabolism of crucian carp is under seasonal influence and that a preparation to winter hypoxia/anoxia could be detected in September.