Acid-catalyzed isomerization and decomposition of ketone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

Analytica chimica acta

PubMedID: 18036384

Uchiyama S, Kaneko T, Tokunaga H, Ando M, Otsubo Y. Acid-catalyzed isomerization and decomposition of ketone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;605(2):198-204.
The quantitative analysis of ketones using DNPH is usually conducted in the presence of an acid catalyst. However, this method may cause an analytical error because 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones have both E- and Z-stereoisomers. Purified ketone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone comprised only the E-isomer. However, under the addition of acid, both E- and Z-isomers were seen. In the case of 2-butanone-, 2-pentanone- and 2-hexanone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone, the equilibrium Z/E isomer ratios were 0.20, 0.21 and 0.22, respectively. In addition, when trace water was added to the hydrazone derivatives in acetonitrile solution, the concentration of ketone derivatives were seen to decrease and the concentration of free DNPH was seen to increase. The decomposition rate of 2-butanone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone was dependent on the concentration of acid-catalysis and reached an equilibrium state--carbonyl, DNPH, hydrazone-derivative and H2O--within 10 h at 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphoric acid solution. The equilibrium constants of ketone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, [carbonyl] [DNPH]/[hydrazone] [H2O], were relatively large and ranged from 0.74x10(-4) to 5.9x10(-4). Hydrazone derivatives formed from 2-ketones such as 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone showed lower equilibrium constants than corresponding 3-ketones. Consequently, only a minimum concentration of catalytic acid must be added. The best method for the determination of ketone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones by HPLC or GC is to add phosphoric acid to both the standard reference solution and samples, forming a 0.001 mol L(-1) acid solution, and analyze after 27 h.