Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Hepasphere 30-60 µm. Safety and Efficacy Study.

Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

PubMedID: 24263774

Malagari K, Pomoni M, Moschouris H, Kelekis A, Charokopakis A, Bouma E, Spyridopoulos T, Chatziioannou A, Sotirchos V, Karampelas T, Tamvakopoulos C, Filippiadis D, Karagiannis E, Marinis A, Koskinas J, Kelekis DA. Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Hepasphere 30-60 µm. Safety and Efficacy Study. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2013;.
BACKGROUND
This study examined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a newly developed size of a superabsorbent polymer drug-eluting embolic material.

METHODS
Forty-five patients with documented HCC (Child-Pugh score A/B: 55.5 %/44.5 %) were embolized with HepaSphere microspheres 30-60 µm with escalation of lesion, dose, and frequency of re-embolization. Local response was evaluated with modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST). Plasma levels of doxorubicin were measured in 24 patients at baseline and at 5, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min, at 6, 24, and 48 h, and at 7 days, respectively, to determine doxorubicin in plasma (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC). Measurements of three patients who underwent lipiodol-based conventional chemoembolization (c-TACE) were also performed.

RESULTS
TACE with HepaSphere was well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile and no 30-day mortality. Response rates were calculated on intention-to-treat basis with complete response (CR) in 17.8 % reaching 22.2 % for the target lesion. Overall partial response (PR) was seen in 51.1 %, stable disease in 20 %, and progressive disease in 11.1 % of patients. Overall objective response (CR + PR), including patients treated at all dosages of doxorubicin, was seen in 68.9 % of cases. After a median follow-up of 15.6 months, 1-year survival is 100 %. Doxorubicin AUC was significantly lower in patients with HepaSphere 30-60 µm (35,195 ± 27,873 ng × min/ml) than in patients with conventional TACE (103,960 ± 16,652 ng × min/ml; p = 0.009). Cmax was also significantly lower with HepaSphere 30-60 µm (83.9 ± 32.1 ng/ml) compared with c-TACE (761.3 ± 58.8 ng/ml; p = 0.002).

CONCLUSION
HepaSphere 30-60 µm is an effective drug-eluting embolic material with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile.