Novel roles of Akt and mTOR in suppressing TGF-beta/ALK5-mediated Smad3 activation.

The EMBO journal

PubMedID: 16362038

Song K, Wang H, Krebs TL, Danielpour D. Novel roles of Akt and mTOR in suppressing TGF-beta/ALK5-mediated Smad3 activation. EMBO J. 2006;25(1):58-69.
Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by blocking activation of Smad3 (S3), via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent pathway. Here we provide the first report that the kinase activity of Akt is necessary for its ability to suppress many TGF-beta responses, including S3 activation and induction of apoptosis. Wild-type and myristoylated Akts (Akt(WT) and Akt(Myr)) suppress TGF-beta-induced phospho-activation of S3 but not Smad2 (S2), whereas kinase-dead Akt1 (Akt1K179M) or dominant-negative PI3K enhances TGF-beta-induced phospho-activation of both S2 and S3. Using siRNA, rapamycin (Rap), and adenoviral expression for FKBP12-resistant and constitutively active TGF-beta type I receptor (ALK5), we demonstrate that mammalian target of Rap (mTOR) mediates Akt1 suppression of phospho-activation of S3. These and further data on Akt1-S3 binding do not support a recently proposed model that Akt blocks S3 activation through physical interaction and sequestration of S3 from TGF-beta receptors. We propose a novel model whereby Akt suppresses activation of S3 in an Akt kinase-dependent manner through mTOR, a likely route for loss of tumor suppression by TGF-beta in cancers.