Differential expression of IFN-alpha and TRAIL/DR5 in lymphoid tissue of progressor versus nonprogressor HIV-1-infected patients.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

PubMedID: 16632604

Herbeuval JP, Nilsson J, Boasso A, Hardy AW, Kruhlak MJ, Anderson SA, Dolan MJ, Dy M, Andersson J, Shearer GM. Differential expression of IFN-alpha and TRAIL/DR5 in lymphoid tissue of progressor versus nonprogressor HIV-1-infected patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103(18):7000-5.
Loss of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of HIV pathogenesis, was suggested to be partly due to apoptosis. We recently reported that IFN-alpha produced by HIV-1-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) contributes to CD4+ T cell apoptosis by the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/death receptor (DR)5 pathway. Here, we show that HIV-1-induced intracellular expression of IFN-alpha in pDCs is coupled to increased expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 and MyD88 by pDCs in vivo and in vitro. Expression of IFN-alpha was increased in lymphoid tonsillar tissue (LT) of patients with progressive (HIV(prog)) compared with nonprogressive (HIV(NP)) HIV-1 disease and to uninfected controls. LT from HIV(prog) exhibited higher TRAIL and DR5 mRNA levels than LT from HIV(NP) or controls. TRAIL mRNA levels in LT correlated with plasma viral load. We show that HIV-1 induces IFN-alpha and the TRAIL/DR5 apoptotic pathway in LT, suggesting a role for these cytokines in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis.