Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia.

The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

PubMedID: 16776459

Alisjahbana B, van Crevel R, Sahiratmadja E, den Heijer M, Maya A, Istriana E, Danusantoso H, Ottenhoff TH, Nelwan RH, Van der Meer JW. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10(6):696-700.
SETTING
Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but no studies have been reported from South-East Asia, which has a high burden of TB and a rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes.

OBJECTIVE
To examine if and to what extent diabetes is associated with an increased risk of TB in an urban setting in Indonesia.

DESIGN
Case-control study comparing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (fasting blood glucose level >126 mg/dl) among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients and matched neighbourhood controls.

RESULTS
Patients and control subjects had a similar age (median 30 years) and sex distribution (52% male), but malnutrition was more common among TB patients (median body mass index 17.7 vs. 21.5 kg/m2). HIV infection was uncommon (1.5% of patients). Diabetes mellitus was present in 60 of 454 TB patients (13.2%) and 18 of 556 (3.2%) control subjects (OR 4.7; 95%CI 2.7-8.1). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not reduce the risk estimates. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, hyperglycaemia reverted in a minority (3.7%) of TB patients.

CONCLUSION
Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with TB in young and non-obese subjects in an urban setting in Indonesia. This may have implications for TB control and patient care in this region.