Carbonyl emissions from commercial cooking sources in Hong Kong.

Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)

PubMedID: 16933641

Ho SS, Yu JZ, Chu KW, Yeung LL. Carbonyl emissions from commercial cooking sources in Hong Kong. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2006;56(8):1091-8.
Cooking fumes are an important carbonyl emission source, especially in a highly urbanized city, such as Hong Kong. Cooking exhaust from 15 commercial kitchens of a variety of cooking styles was sampled and analyzed for a suite of 13 carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl compositions were varied among the different cooking styles. Formaldehyde was generally the most abundant carbonyl, and its contribution to the total carbonyl amount on a molar basis ranged from 12 to 60%. Acrolein was also found to be an abundant carbonyl in the cooking exhaust. The highest contribution by acrolein to the total carbonyls was found to be 30% in the exhaust of a western-style steak restaurant. Long-chain saturated carbonyls, that is, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal, accounted for a significant fraction (> 40%) of the total carbonyls in kitchens that always used heated cooking oils. Two dicarbonyls, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, had a various presence in the cooking emissions, ranging from negligible to 10%. The presence of benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde was mostly negligible in the sampled kitchen exhaust. Annual emission rates of both individual carbonyls and total carbonyls were estimated for various types of commercial kitchens. Local-style fast-food shops contributed the highest total carbonyl emissions per year mainly because of the large number of this kind of restaurant in Hong Kong. The citywide annual emission rates of the three most toxic carbonyls, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, were estimated assuming that the limited number of sampled restaurants were representative of the average restaurants. Such estimates of carbonyl emission rates were comparable to the estimated carbonyl emissions from vehicular sources, suggesting the importance of commercial cooking as a source for carbonyls in Hong Kong.