Apolipophorin III: lipopolysaccharide binding requires helix bundle opening.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications

PubMedID: 16919602

Leon LJ, Idangodage H, Wan CP, Weers PM. Apolipophorin III: lipopolysaccharide binding requires helix bundle opening. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348(4):1328-33.
Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a prototypical apolipoprotein used for structure-function studies. Besides its crucial role in lipid transport, apoLp-III is able to associate with fungal and bacterial membranes and stimulate cellular immune responses. We recently demonstrated binding interaction of apoLp-III of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In the present study, the requirement of helix bundle opening for LPS binding interaction was investigated. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues were introduced in close spatial proximity (P5C/A135C). When the helix bundle was locked by disulfide bond formation, the tethered helix bundle failed to associate with LPS. In contrast, the mutant protein regained its ability to bind upon reduction with dithiothreitol. Thus, helix bundle opening is a critical event in apoLp-III binding interaction with LPS. This mechanism implies that the hydrophobic interior of the protein interacts directly with LPS, analogous to that observed for lipid interaction.