Management of the ACC/AHA Stage D Patient: Cardiac Transplantation.

Cardiology clinics

PubMedID: 24286581

Kittleson MM, Kobashigawa JA. Management of the ACC/AHA Stage D Patient: Cardiac Transplantation. Cardiol Clin. 2014;32(1):95-112.
Over the last 4 decades, cardiac transplantation has become the preferred therapy for select patients with end-stage heart disease. Heart transplantation is indicated in patients with heart failure despite optimal medical and device therapy, manifesting as intractable angina, refractory heart failure, or intractable ventricular arrhythmias. This article provides an overview of heart transplantation in the current era, focusing on the evaluation process for heart transplantation, the physiology of the transplanted heart, immunosuppressive regimens, and early and long-term complications.