Regulation of Gastric Emptying Rate and its Role in Nutrient-Induced GLP-1 Secretion in Rats after Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy.

American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism

PubMedID: 24368666

Chambers AP, Smith EP, Begg DP, Grayson BE, Sisley S, Greer T, Sorrell J, Lemmen L, LaSance K, Woods SC, Seeley RJ, D'Alessio DA, Sandoval DA. Regulation of Gastric Emptying Rate and its Role in Nutrient-Induced GLP-1 Secretion in Rats after Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;.
Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabelled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient-infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient-sensitivity in VSG rats compared to shams. 5-min after a nutrient gavage, the stomach of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, while only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared to shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine.