Neuronal and nonneuronal COX-2 expression confers neurotoxic and neuroprotective phenotypes in response to excitotoxin challenge.

Journal of neuroscience research

PubMedID: 24375716

An Y, Belevych N, Wang Y, Zhang H, Herschman H, Chen Q, Quan N. Neuronal and nonneuronal COX-2 expression confers neurotoxic and neuroprotective phenotypes in response to excitotoxin challenge. J Neurosci Res. 2013;.
Treating acute brain injuries with COX-2 inhibitors can produce both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects. This study investigated the role of COX-2 in modulating acute brain injury induced by excitotoxic neural damage. Intrastriatal injection of excitotoxin (RS)-(tetrazole-5yl) glycine elicited COX-2 expression in two distinct groups of cells. cortical neurons surrounding the lesion and vascular cells in the lesion core. The vascular COX-2 was expressed in two cell types, endothelial cells and monocytes. Selective deletion of COX-2 in vascular cells in Tie2Cre Cox-2(flox/flox) mice did not affect the induction of COX-2 in neurons after the excitotoxin injection but resulted in increased lesion volume, indicating a neuroprotective role for the COX-2 expressed in the vascular cells. Selective deletion of monocyte COX-2 in LysMCre Cox-2(flox/flox) mice did not reduce COX-2-dependent neuroprotection, suggesting that endothelial COX-2 is sufficient to confer neuroprotection. Pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity in Tie2Cre Cox-2(flox/flox) mice reduced lesion volume, indicating a neurotoxic role for the COX-2 expressed in neurons. Furthermore, COX-2-dependent neurotoxicity was mediated, at least in part, via the activation of the EP1 receptor. These results show that Cox-2 expression induced in different cell types can confer opposite effects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.