A review of the renal and neurohormonal effects of B-type natriuretic peptide.

Congestive heart failure (Greenwich, Conn.)

PubMedID: 15722668

Burger AJ. A review of the renal and neurohormonal effects of B-type natriuretic peptide. Congest Heart Fail. 2005;11(1):30-8.
Adverse neurohormonal activation is an essential component in the pathogenesis of acute decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). Consequently, blunting this activation is an important therapeutic goal. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a counterregulatory hormone produced by the ventricles in response to pressure and volume load. Endogenous BNP levels are significantly elevated in patients with acute CHF, but these levels are frequently inadequate to overcome the excess neurohormonal activation present in this condition. Infusion of nesiritide, a recombinant form of endogenous human BNP, increases circulating BNP levels by several-fold, augmenting the counterregulatory effects of this hormone. Clinical trials demonstrate that in patients with acute decompensated CHF, nesiritide produces arterial and venous vasodilation, reducing both preload and afterload; blunts adverse neurohormones, including renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and endothelin-1; and improves renal hemodynamics and tubular function. As a result, nesiritide quickly reduces clinical symptoms and improves mortality in patients with acute CHF.