Effect of calcium and carbonate concentrations on cationic membrane fouling during electrodialysis.

Journal of colloid and interface science

PubMedID: 15567395

Bazinet L, Araya-Farias M. Effect of calcium and carbonate concentrations on cationic membrane fouling during electrodialysis. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2005;281(1):188-96.
Fouling, which is the accumulation of undesired solid materials at the phase interfaces of permselective membranes, is one of the major problems in electrodialysis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect on the fouling of cation-exchange membranes of the composition in calcium and carbonate of a model solution to be treated by electrodialysis. No fouling was observed at 400 and 800 mg/L of CaCl(2) in the absence of carbonate, while at only 400 mg/L CaCl(2) with carbonate, a deposit was observed. This difference could be explained by the buffering capacity of the carbonate, which affects the treatment duration with and without sodium carbonate. Since the duration was longer with carbonate, more calcium ions were able to migrate across the CMX-S membrane, which explained the higher deposit on its surface. Furthermore, whether there was carbonate in the solution treated by electrodialysis or not, the deposit on the surface of the cationic membrane was calcium hydroxide. However, this fouling formed during conventional ED was easily cleaned by an acid procedure.