Suppressive effect of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on type I IFN-mediated monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells: impairment of functional activities and chemotaxis.

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

PubMedID: 15611249

Gauzzi MC, Purificato C, Donato K, Jin Y, Wang L, Daniel KC, Maghazachi AA, Belardelli F, Adorini L, Gessani S. Suppressive effect of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on type I IFN-mediated monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells: impairment of functional activities and chemotaxis. J Immunol. 2005;174(1):270-6.
Dendritic cells (DCs) generated by a single-step exposure of human monocytes to type I IFN and GM-CSF (IFN-DCs) are endowed with potent immunostimulatory activities and a distinctive migratory response to specific chemokines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D(3), on the DC differentiation/activation induced by type I IFN. We found that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) prevented the generation of IFN-DCs when added to freshly isolated monocytes, and was capable of redirecting already differentiated IFN-DCs toward a more immature stage, as revealed by their immunophenotype, reduced allostimulatory activity, and impaired LPS-induced production of Th1-polarizing cytokines. Control and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated IFN-DCs exhibited a similar expression of vitamin D receptor, as well as comparable cell death rates. Furthermore, the chemotactic response of IFN-DCs to CCL4 and CCL19 was markedly reduced or completely abrogated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Despite these changes in the IFN-DC migratory behavior, the expression of CCR5 and CCR7 and the calcium fluxes triggered by CCL4 and CCL19 were not affected. These findings indicate that, in this innovative single-step DC generation model from monocytes, the suppressive effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is associated with a potent impairment of DC migration in response to inflammatory and lymph node-homing chemokines, thus unraveling a novel mechanism involved in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated immunomodulation.