Implications of the re-invasion of Southeast Uganda by Glossina pallidipes on the epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis.

Veterinary parasitology

PubMedID: 15725527

Magona JW, Walubengo J, Odiit M, Okedi LA, Abila P, Katabazi BK, Gidudu AM, Olaho-Mukani W. Implications of the re-invasion of Southeast Uganda by Glossina pallidipes on the epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;128(1-2):1-9.
A study to assess the influence of re-invasion of Glossina pallidipes on the epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was conducted in Southeast Uganda. A total of 1,992 cattle were screened in villages, with (949) and without G. pallidipes (1043) for trypanosomosis using a combination of the BCT and HCT methods. The prevalence of trypanosomosis (15.5%), Trypanosoma brucei infection (1.4%), T. congolense infection (7.2%), T. vivax infection (5.3%) and mixed infection (1.6%) in cattle in villages with was significantly higher than in those without G. pallidipes: trypanosomosis (7.1%), T. brucei infection (0.6%), T. congolense infection (2.0%), T. vivax infection (3.3%) and mixed infection (1.2%) (overall trypanosome infection, chi2=35.5, d.f.=1, P<0.05; T. brucei infection, chi2=8.06, d.f.=1, P<0.05; T. congolense infection, chi2=22.8, d.f.=1, P<0.05 and T. vivax infection, chi2=6.4, d.f.=1, P<0.05). Infections of Trypanosoma congolense were predominant in cattle in villages with G. pallidipes, while T. vivax infections were predominant in cattle in villages without. In all villages, T. brucei infections were fewer than either T. congolense or T. vivax infections. The risk of transmission of T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections was 3, 2.7 and 1.6 times, respectively, higher in villages with G. pallidipes than in those without, despite the presence of G. f. fuscipes in either set of villages. The mean PCV (28.27+/-0.41, 95% CI) and mean herd size (3+/-0.46) of cattle in villages with G. pallidipes were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in those in villages without (mean PCV, 29.48+/-0.34; mean herd size, 4+/-0.72). It is evident that presence of G. pallidipes brings about an increase in the prevalence of T. congolense, which causes a more severe disease in cattle than other species of trypanosomes. This is a rare case of a re-invasion of a tsetse species whose disease transmission capability calls for refocusing of the traditional national tsetse and trypanosomosis control strategies to contain it.