Laparoscopic splenectomy for non-traumatic diseases.

Minerva chirurgica

PubMedID: 16210986

Silecchia G, Raparelli L, Casella G, Basso N. Laparoscopic splenectomy for non-traumatic diseases. Minerva Chir. 2005;60(5):363-74.
At present, laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is mostly indicated in hematologic benign diseases, and in case of normal size spleen it is considered the gold standard. The technique is under a continuous evolution and several studies have demonstrated feasibility and safety of laparoscopic approach also in case of massive splenomegaly, malignant diseases and even in the treatment of selected cases traumatic lesions. LS is an advanced surgical procedure that requires a management of a full trained team involved in the preoperative preparation, surgical strategy and postoperative care. A fully comprehension of the impact of the surgical strategy is needed to plan the treatment of diseases that often are managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Indications and contraindications to surgery does not differ significantly from open traditional splenectomy, but the nature of the disease and the volume of the spleen can greatly influence the operation. A preoperative study with definition of these parameters along with a standard preparation to surgery is required. Over the years the technique has been developed and adapted to respond to emergent necessities related to those parameters. Anterior, semilateral, later and hand assisted approaches offer advantages and drawbacks that should be weighed in each case. They depend on surgeons preferences but most of the time are related to the preoperative studies, even when new surgical tools (i.e. harmonic scalpel and radiofrequency). No randomized, prospective trials have been conducted, however several studies with strong evidence have shown that less surgical trauma, intraoperative blood loss, early hospital discharge, rapid return to normal activities and better cosmesis can be obtained with a laparoscopic approach.