Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood associated with influenza type B virus infection in a 3-year-old girl.

Journal of child neurology

PubMedID: 15032389

Huang SM, Chen CC, Chiu PC, Cheng MF, Lai PH, Hsieh KS. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood associated with influenza type B virus infection in a 3-year-old girl. J Child Neurol. 2004;19(1):64-7.
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood represents a novel entity of acute encephalophathy, predominantly affecting infants and young children living in Taiwan and Japan. It manifests with symptoms of coma, convulsions, and hyperpyrexia after 2 to 4 days of respiratory tract infections in previously healthy children. The hallmark of acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood consists of multifocal and symmetric brain lesions affecting the bilateral thalami, brainstem tegmentum, cerebral periventricular white matter, or cerebellar medulla. The etiology and pathogenesis of this kind of acute encephalopathy remain unknown, and there is no specific therapy or prevention. The prognosis is usually poor, and less than 10% of patients recover completely. We report a 3-year-old previously healthy girl presenting with acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood associated with influenza type B virus infection, which resulted in severe neurologic sequelae. We also review the current knowledge of the clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic aspects of acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood.