Liver-directed adenoviral gene transfer in murine succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy

PubMedID: 15093183

Gupta M, Jansen EE, Senephansiri H, Jakobs C, Snead OC, Grompe M, Gibson KM. Liver-directed adenoviral gene transfer in murine succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Mol Ther. 2004;9(4):527-39.
Murine succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (OMIM 271980; EC 1.2.1.24), a model of the corresponding human disorder, displays 100% mortality at weeks 3-4 of life, associated with lethal tonic-clonic seizures. The biochemical hallmark, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), accumulates in both human and murine disorders. In the current study we evaluated rescue of the murine model with liver-directed gene therapy using the E1-deleted adenoviral vector AD:pAD-RSV-humanSSADH. Our working hypotheses were: (1) liver expresses considerable SSADH activity and therefore represents a major source of GHB output, (2) correction of liver enzyme deficiency will reduce GHB load both peripherally and in the central nervous system, and (3) SSADH expression will improve survival. SSADH(-/-) and SSADH(+/+) mice were treated under two protocols: (A) intraperitoneal injection of 10(8)-10(11) viral particles by day 10 of life or (B) retro-orbital injection of 10(11) viral particles at day 13 of life. Intravenous administration was prohibited by the small size and fragility of the mice. Maximal survival (39%; P<0.001) was achieved with intraperitoneal administration (10(8) particles) at day 10; intraperitoneal (10(10) and 10(11) particles) and retro-orbital administration (10(11) particles) yielded lower survival of 11-25% (P<0.02). Under both protocols, the maximal hepatic SSADH enzyme activity was approximately 20% of SSADH(+/+) liver activity (retro-orbital > ip). At various time points postinjection, ip-treated animals (10(8) viral particles) demonstrated upward of 80% reduction in liver GHB concentrations, with little impact on brain or serum GHB levels except at 48-72 h posttreatment (approximately 50% reduction for both tissues). Accordingly, we harvested retro-orbitally treated animals at 72 h and observed significant reductions of 60-70% for GHB in liver, kidney, serum, and brain extracts. Histochemical analysis of liver from retro-orbitally treated mutants demonstrated substantial SSADH staining, but with variability both within tissues and between animals. Our studies provide proof-of-principle that liver-mediated gene therapy has efficacy in treating SSADH deficiency and that hepatic tissue contributes significantly to the pool of GHB within the CNS.