High extracellular calcium attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

Experimental cell research

PubMedID: 15530863

Jensen B, Farach-Carson MC, Kenaley E, Akanbi KA. High extracellular calcium attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2004;301(2):280-92.
We studied the effect of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](e)) on adipocyte differentiation. Preadipocytes exposed to continuous [Ca(2+)](e) higher than 2.5 mmol/l accumulated little or no cytoplasmic lipid compared to controls in 1.8 mmol/l [Ca(2+)](e). Differentiation was monitored by Oil Red O staining of cytoplasmic lipid and triglyceride assay of accumulated lipid, by RT-PCR analysis of adipogenic markers, and by the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). Elevated [Ca(2+)](e) inhibited expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, and steroid regulatory binding element protein. High [Ca(2+)](e) significantly inhibited differentiation marker expression including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, and GPDH. The decrease in Pref-1 expression that accompanied differentiation also was prevented by high [Ca(2+)](e). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with high [Ca(2+)](e) did not significantly affect cell number or viability and did not trigger apoptosis. Levels of intracellular Ca(+2) remained unchanged in various [Ca(2+)](e). Treatment of 3T3-L1 with pertussis toxin (PTX) partially restored lipid accumulation and increased differentiation markers in cells treated with 5 mmol/l [Ca(2+)](e). 'Classical' parathyroid cell Ca(2+) sensing receptors (CaSR) were not detected either by RT-PCR or by Western blotting. These results suggest that continuous exposure to high [Ca(2+)](e) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and that this may involve a G-protein-coupled mechanism mediated by a novel Ca(2+) sensor or receptor.