Caspase-1 and caspase-8 cleave and inactivate cellular parkin.

The Journal of biological chemistry

PubMedID: 12692130

Kahns S, Kalai M, Jakobsen LD, Clark BF, Vandenabeele P, Jensen PH. Caspase-1 and caspase-8 cleave and inactivate cellular parkin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(26):23376-80.
Lesions in the parkin gene cause early onset Parkinson's disease by a loss of dopaminergic neurons, thus demonstrating a vital role for parkin in the survival of these neurons. Parkin is inactivated by caspase cleavage, and the major cleavage site is after Asp126. Caspases responsible for parkin cleavage were identified by several experimental paradigms. Transient coexpression of caspases and wild type parkin in HEK-293 cells identified caspase-1, -3, and -8 as efficient inducers of parkin cleavage whereas caspase-2, -7, -9, and -11 did not induce cleavage. A D126A parkin mutation abrogates cleavage induced by caspase-1 and -8, but not by caspase-3. In anti-Fas-treated Jurkat T cells, parkin cleavage was inhibited by caspase inhibitors hFlip and CrmA (but not by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)), indicating that caspase-8 (but not caspase-3) is responsible for the parkin cleavage in this model. Moreover, induction of apoptosis in caspase-3-deficient MCF7 cells, either by caspase-1 or -8 overexpression or by tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment, led to parkin cleavage. These results demonstrate that caspase-1 and -8 can directly cleave parkin and suggest that death receptor activation and inflammatory stress can cause loss of the ubiquitin ligase activity of parkin, thus causing accumulation of toxic parkin substrates and triggering dopaminergic cell death.