Identification of retinol binding protein 1 promoter hypermethylation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutant gliomas.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

PubMedID: 22945948

Chou AP, Chowdhury R, Li S, Chen W, Kim AJ, Piccioni DE, Selfridge JM, Mody RR, Chang S, Lalezari S, Lin J, Sanchez DE, Wilson RW, Garrett MC, Harry B, Mottahedeh J, Nghiemphu PL, Kornblum HI, Mischel PS, Prins RM, Yong WH, Cloughesy T, Nelson SF, Liau LM, Lai A. Identification of retinol binding protein 1 promoter hypermethylation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutant gliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(19):1458-69.
BACKGROUND
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and associated CpG island hypermethylation represent early events in the development of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. To identify candidate tumor suppressor genes whose promoter methylation may contribute to gliomagenesis, we compared methylation profiles of IDH1 mutant (MUT) and IDH1 wild-type (WT) tumors using massively parallel reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.

METHODS
Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed on ten pathologically matched WT and MUT glioma samples and compared with data from a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme technique and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methylation in the gene retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1) was identified in IDH1 mutant tumors and further analyzed with primer-based bisulfite sequencing. Correlation between IDH1/IDH2 mutation status and RBP1 methylation was evaluated with Spearman correlation. Survival data were collected retrospectively and analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS
Methylome analysis identified coordinated CpG island hypermethylation in IDH1 MUT gliomas, consistent with previous reports. RBP1, important in retinoic acid metabolism, was found to be hypermethylated in 76 of 79 IDH1 MUT, 3 of 3 IDH2 MUT, and 0 of 116 IDH1/IDH2 WT tumors. IDH1/IDH2 mutation was highly correlated with RBP1 hypermethylation (n = 198; Spearman R = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.92 to 0.95, P < .001). The Cancer Genome Atlas showed IDH1 MUT tumors (n = 23) to be RBP1-hypermethylated with decreased RBP1 expression compared with WT tumors (n = 124). Among patients with primary glioblastoma, patients with RBP1-unmethylated tumors (n = 102) had decreased median overall survival compared with patients with RBP1-methylated tumors (n = 22) (20.3 months vs 36.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio of death = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.30 to 4.75, P = .006).

CONCLUSION
RBP1 promoter hypermethylation is found in nearly all IDH1 and IDH2 mutant gliomas and is associated with improved patient survival. Because RBP1 is involved in retinoic acid synthesis, our results suggest that dysregulation of retinoic acid metabolism may contribute to glioma formation along the IDH1/IDH2-mutant pathway.