[BK virus-induced tubulo-interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient].

Annales de pathologie

PubMedID: 14752386

Dorel-Le Théo M, Daniel L, Moal V, Zandotti C, Berland Y, Pellissier JF. [BK virus-induced tubulo-interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient]. Ann Pathol. 2003;23(5):430-3.
We present a case of renal BK virus infection with renal allograft dysfunction. Renal allograft biopsy showed mononuclear infiltrates in the interstitium and viral inclusions in the tubular epithelial cells. Infected cells were stained with an anti-polyomavirus antibody. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on blood, urine, and on the DNA extracted from renal tissue showed the presence of the BK virus DNA sequence. The immunosuppressive therapy including tacrolimus, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil was reduced leading to an improvement of the renal function. BK virus infection is now recognized as a cause of renal allograft dysfunction, and has been observed with increasing frequency in recent years. Reactivation of the latent virus occurs in immunocompromised hosts such as organ recipients with immunosuppressive treatment. Histologically, renal BK virus infection is characterized by a lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, and could mimic acute rejection. The pathologist should diagnose the viral infection and may be helped by urine cytology and immunohistochemistry. An accurate diagnosis is important because antirejection therapy favors the decline of the renal function. Enhanced new immunotherapy protocols seem to be the main risk factor for this infection. The response to reduced immunosuppression is variable with reports of an end stage renal failure in 70% of the patients after 18 months.