Encapsulation of apatite particles for improvement in bone regeneration.

Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine

PubMedID: 15348505

Rodríguez-Lorenzo LM, Gross KA. Encapsulation of apatite particles for improvement in bone regeneration. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2003;14(11):939-43.
The layering of fluorapatite on hydroxyapatite bodies provides a means of decreasing the solubility of hydroxyapatite, providing fluoride for possible stimulation of bone formation and delaying the release of calcium and phosphate from the more soluble hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this work was to encapsulate hydroxyapatite particles with fluorapatite spanning a thickness more than several crystallites deep. A three-step procedure was employed. Hydroxyapatite powder was immersed in an electrolyte solution until an equilibrium was established between the solid and the dissolved calcium at pH 4.67 and 37 degrees C. Equilibrium was determined by measurement of dissolved calcium with a calcium-specific ion-specific electrode. A 5x10(-2) M ammonium fluoride added to the suspension resulted in a rapid decrease of both calcium and fluoride in the solution. Analysis with X-ray diffraction indicated that a fluoride rich layer containing calcium fluoride deposited onto the particle surface. Scanning electron microscopy revealed submicron spherical precipitate clusters on the hydroxyapatite particles. These clusters transformed to fluorapatite by soaking in a 0.1 M K(2)HPO(4) solution at pH 8 and 70 degrees C. A total time of 10 h was necessary for complete transformation of CaF(2) into fluorapatite.