Origins of material contrast in scanning ion microscope images.

Journal of electron microscopy

PubMedID: 12227550

Ishitani T, Madokoro Y, Nakagawa M, Ohya K. Origins of material contrast in scanning ion microscope images. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2002;51(4):207-13.
A Monte Carlo simulation of ion-induced kinetic electron emission (KE) was carried out to study the material contrast in scanning ion microscope (SIM) images, i.e. secondary electron (SE) yields decreasing with atomic number Z2 of the target, which is opposite to that for scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The simulations show that SE yields decrease with increasing Z2 for the targets of Al (Z2 = 13), Cu (Z2 = 29) and Au (Z2 = 79) bombarded by 10 approximately 40 keV gallium (Ga) ions. Details of the SE yield according to the collision partners (i.e. Ga ion, recoiled target-atom and excited electron) clarify the origins of material (or Z2) contrast in the Ga-SIM images. Cause and effect on the material contrast are as follows: the heavier (or slower) collision partner transfers less energy to the excited electrons and leads to a poorer multiplication of other excited electrons in the cascade process. The simulation also predicts that the Ga-SIM images are more sensitive to the outermost target surface than the SEM images. material contrast, atomic number contrast, secondary electrons, secondary electron yield, scanning ion microscope, scanning electron microscope